Diet Order: Regular
Diet description: No restrictions on a regular diet. It is recommended to eat a variety of foods to ensure adequate nutrition. Aim for at least 2 fruit servings and 3 vegetable servings per day. Try to include 3 servings of whole grains (whole wheat bread, etc) and 3 servings of dairy products. High protein foods are important to help your body heal, aim for 6 oz. of meat or meat alternatives per day. For proper hydration, aim for 7-8 cups of fluids per day.
Diet Order: Consistent Carbohydrate
The consistent carbohydrate diet is prescribed to help manage blood glucose (sugar) levels for those with diabetes or pre-diabetes. This diet is appropriate for those on oral diabetes medications, insulin or no medication. It involves eating around the same amount of carbohydrate at each meal. Three to four servings of carbohydrate per meal and one per snack is usually recommended. A serving of carbohydrate = 15 grams, examples: One slice
of bread, ¾ cup unsweetened cereal, ½ cup cooked oatmeal, 1/3 cup cooked rice or pasta, ½ cup corn, peas or potatoes, 1 tennis ball sized apple, ½ cup juice or canned fruit, 1 cup light yogurt or milk.
Diet Order: No Added Salt
Why restrict salt?
Diet explanation: Avoid adding salt to foods at the table and when cooking. Look for low sodium canned soups and deli meats, if you eat frozen meals try to find ones that are under 600 mg of sodium, limit intake of salty snacks, cheese and processed meats.
Diet Order: Low Potassium
What is Potassium and why is it restricted?
Potassium is a mineral found in most foods. You need some potassium to keep your heart working as it supposed to. If your kidneys do not work well, potassium can build-up in your blood. Physical signs that potassium may be building-up in the blood stream are: diarrhea, nausea, weakness, breathing problems, and it could possibly cause the heart to stop.
If the doctor recommends to cut-back on potassium, the following foods should be limited to ¼ to ½ cup one to two times a week:
• bananas, potatoes,tomatoes, oranges/orange juice.
• Potatoes include: potato chips, French fries, baked, sweet, mashed, or boiled potatoes
• Tomatoes include tomato/spaghetti sauce, juice
• Other high potassium foods/beverages include:
• Peanuts, almonds, pecans, peanut butter
• Mushrooms, winter squash, asparagus
• Pears, kiwi, nectarines, melons, apricots, avocado, dates, figs, prunes
Low potassium foods to choose when on a restricted potassium diet are:
• Fruits (apples, peaches, plum, canned pears, strawberries,cherries, raspberries, cranberries, blackberries, blueberries,pineapple, grapes, lemons, rhubarb)
• Juices (grape, pear, peach nectar, apple, pineapple, cranberryand lemon)
• Vegetables (lettuce, celery, cucumbers, carrots, onion,radishes, green or wax beans, eggplant, cabbage, peppers,zucchini, summer squash, green peas, corn)
Diet Order: Renal
A Renal Diet may be required due to impaired or deteriorating kidney function or to those who are on kidney dialysis. It is important to follow the renal diet prescribed by the physician in order to reduce symptoms of kidney disease and maintain health status. The main focus of the renal diet is to limit sodium, fluid, potassium and phosphorus intakes due to the kidneys’ impaired ability to remove excess of these nutrients from the body. The following guidelines can help control fluid gain, blood pressure and important laboratory values between dialysis treatments.
The Renal Diet is specific to each person’s needs. Consult the physician and a registered dietitian to learn specific levels of each nutrient that should be consumed.
• Limit fluid intake to the prescribed amount to prevent excess accumulation in the body which can cause discomfort and high blood pressure.
• Too much sodium consumption may cause excess thirst and can contribute to high blood pressure.
• With impaired kidney function, excess potassium levels stay in the body and may cause heart complications.
• Phosphorus is important to bone health, but too much can cause calcium to exit the bones, leaving them weak and brittle. Taking phosphorus binders as prescribed with meals can help control the amount absorbed by the body.
• For individuals on dialysis it is important to have an adequate amount of high quality protein to make up for the amount lost during the procedure.
• If not on dialysis it may be important to reduce your protein intake due to the build-up of waste products from protein metabolism.
• Vitamin and mineral supplementation may be needed
Diet Order: Lower Lactose
Lactose is a sugar found naturally in milk and dairy products. Some individuals cannot digest lactose because they do not have enough lactase enzymes to help in the digestive process. These individuals experience bloating, diarrhea and cramping.
Avoid all dairy products containing lactose (milk and ice cream)
• Substitute lactose free or lactose reduced dairy products. The lactose in yogurt and cheese is changed to lactic acid in the processing. It doesn’t require the lactose enzyme for digestion.
• Lactose enzymes are available in drops or tablets. They may be taken with dairy products to help avoid symptoms of lactose intolerance.
• Check labels on all foods to identify sources of milk, whey, dry milk solids and lactose.
• Avoid convenience foods and casseroles that may contain processed milk or milk products.
• Substitute non-dairy products to replace milk in recipes and beverages (soy, rice or almond milk).
• Gradually add small amounts of foods and drinks that contain lactose to determine your tolerance.
• Avoiding dairy products altogether places you at risk for low levels of calcium and vitamin D.
• Consult the physician or registered dietitian regarding a vitamin/mineral supplement.
Diet Order: Low Cholesterol
Following this diet involves choosing foods low in cholesterol such as low fat or fat free dairy products, whole grains, vegetables, fruits, lean meats, etc. and avoiding high fat red meats, liver, whole dairy products, and egg yolks.
Diet Order: Gluten Free
Gluten is a type of protein that is found in wheat, rye, oats, barley and other similar grains. Some people cannot tolerate gluten when it comes in contact with their small intestines. This interferes with the digestion and absorption of important nutrients. Symptoms of gluten intolerance include: poor appetite, weight loss, cramping, and diarrhea. A gluten free diet must be followed to prevent further damage to the intestinal wall.
• Begin to understand which foods and beverages are safe substitute corn, rice, beans, arrowroot, tapioca, sorghum, flax, nuts, seeds, sweet potato, potato, pure cider vinegar for gluten containing grains.
• Read labels carefully; avoid products that contain flour, modified food starch, cereal extracts, semolina, durum, malt, malt vinegar, MSG, stabilizers.
• Avoid items such as meat loaf, cutlets and patties that may contain bread crumbs. Fresh or frozen meat, poultry and fish without breading are allowed.
• Processed and flavored cheeses should not be used, however hard cheeses such as Cheddar, Swiss, Edam, and Parmesan are good substitutes.
Diet Order: Low Residue
Low residue basically means low in fiber. This diet is usually for recommended for a short period of time. Foods low in fiber include soft cooked vegetables without skins, canned fruits or fruits without skins or seeds, low fiber cereals such as cornflakes, rice krispies, Rice or Corn Chex or cream of rice, white, enriched wheat or potato breads-avoiding whole grains.